Under the new Constitution, approved by the Constitution Assembly
in June 1960, legislative power is vested in National Assembly.
National Assembly: Consists of 123 deputies (90 from the former
Italian Somaliland and 33 from the former British Somaliland) elected
by universal suffrage and of a number of deputies-by-right. The Assembly
holds two annual sessions starting in April and October, and is re-elected
every five years.
President of the Republic: Head of State, elected by secret
vote of the National Assembly for a six-year term of office. Re-election
to a consecutive term take place only once. Past presidents become
deputies-by-right for life.
Government: Composed of a council of Ministers, headed by the
Prime Minister, which has the confidence of the National Assembly.
The Prime Minister is appointed and dismissed by the President of
the Reublic; so, too, the Ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister.
Somali Youth League (Liga dei Giovani Somali): Mogadishu;
f. 1943; forms the Government; nationalist; repudiates tribal and
religious distinctions and stands for the peaceful re-union of all
Somali National Congress: f. 1963 by former members of Somali
Youth League, National Somali League and Somali United Party.
Somali Democratic Union: Mogadishu; f. 1962; an alliance of
the United Somali Party, the Somali National League and the Greater
The Independent Constitutional Somali Party (H.D.M.S.) (Partito
Constituzionale Independente Somali): strong in South Somalia.
National Somali League: Stands for union with French Somaliland,
part of Ethiopia and the Northern Frontier Province of Kenya.
Somali United Party: f. 1959; Formed by the People in areas
to extreme North-West and North-East of former British Somaliland.
Liberal Somali Youth Party (P.L.G.S.) (Partito Liberale dei Giovani
Somali): A small opposition Party
The Greater Somali League: Mogadishu; f. 1958; formed from
SYL dissidents; baycotted 1959 elections; stood for complete integration
of all Somali territories.
Other Parties: Union of the Youth of Benadir; The Somali Fichirin
Youth; Unione Musulmana; Unione Nazionale Somala; Unione Nazionalista
Africana; Somalia National Front; Unione Maniferro Nazionale; Somalia
Republican Party (P.R.S.); Somali African National Union (S.A.N.U.).
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative
powers. Laws and acts having the force of law must conform to provisions
of the constitution and to the general principles of Islam.
Supreme Court: Mogadishu; as the highest judicial organ, has
jurisdiction over the whole territory of the state in civil, penal,
administrative and financial matters.
Regional Judges and Court of Assixes: Six Regional Judges preside
over the Courts of Assizes. The Assize Courts hear all important Criminal
Cases. The Regional Judge also reviews the decisions of District Judges.
Regional judgments may be reviewed by an Appeal Court.
District Judges: All petty Criminal cases are heard by District
Judges or the District Commissioners.
Qadis: Civil matters such as marriage and divorce are handled
by District Qadis under thesharia (Islamic) law and other traditional
Corriere della Somalia: Moadishu; daily; Arabic and Italian;
Government Information Department.
Bollettino Mensile della Camera di Commercio, Industria ed Agricultura
della Somalia: Mogadishu; f. 1944; Monthly; Italian; Published
by Chamber of Commerce of Somalia.
Il Faro: Mogadishu; Monthly; Italian; Catholic.
Al Liwa (The Flag): Hargeisa; Weekly; Published in Arabic by
People's Union: Harheisa; Weekly, published in Arabic by private
concern; alligned to the Somali Democtratic Union.
Somali News: Mogadishu; Weekly; English; government owned.
La Tribuna: Mogadishu; Monthly; Italian.
National Broadcasting Station: Radio Mogadishu, Voice of
the Somali Republic, Mogadishu; main government service; broadcasts
in Somali, English, Italian, Arabic, Swahili, Amharic and Qoti.
Radio Somali: Hargeisa; Northern Region Government station;
broadcasts in Somali, and relays Somali and Amharic transmission from
Banca Nazionale Somala: Mogadishu; f. 1960; Central Bank
and currency issuing authority; Branches in Baidoa, Belet Weyn,
Berbera, Bosaso, Buroa, Galkayo, Gardo, Hargeisa and Kismayo.
Credito Somalo (Somali Credit Bank): Mogadishu; f. 1954; chartered
public institution; foreign exchange and loans for commerce, industry,
agriculture and development.
Banco di Napoli: Naples (Italy);Mogadishu and agency in Kismayo
Banco di Roma: Roma (Italy); Mogadishu and agency in Merca
Banque de Port Said: Port Said;Mogadishu.
National and Grindlays Bank Ltd.: London (UK); Hargeisa and
Cassa per le Assicurazioni Sociali della Somalia: Mogadishu,
f. 1950; workmen's compensation.