The Government and Privite Institutions: Somali Republic (1960-69)


The Constitution

Under the new Constitution, approved by the Constitution Assembly in June 1960, legislative power is vested in National Assembly.


            National Assembly: Consists of 123 deputies (90 from the former 
            Italian Somaliland and 33 from the former British Somaliland) elected 
            by universal suffrage and of a number of deputies-by-right. The Assembly 
            holds two annual sessions starting in April and October, and is re-elected 
            every five years. 
            

            President of the Republic: Head of State, elected by secret 
            vote of the National Assembly for a six-year term of office. Re-election 
            to a consecutive term take place only once. Past presidents become 
            deputies-by-right for life. 
            

            Government: Composed of a council of Ministers, headed by the 
            Prime Minister, which has the confidence of the National Assembly. 
            The Prime Minister is appointed and dismissed by the President of 
            the Reublic; so, too, the Ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister. 
            

Political Parties

Somali Youth League (Liga dei Giovani Somali): Mogadishu; f. 1943; forms the Government; nationalist; repudiates tribal and religious distinctions and stands for the peaceful re-union of all Somali territories.


            Somali National Congress: f. 1963 by former members of Somali 
            Youth League, National Somali League and Somali United Party. 
            

            Somali Democratic Union: Mogadishu; f. 1962; an alliance of 
            the United Somali Party, the Somali National League and the Greater 
            Somali League. 
            

            The Independent Constitutional Somali Party (H.D.M.S.) (Partito 
            Constituzionale Independente Somali): strong in South Somalia. 
            

            National Somali League: Stands for union with French Somaliland, 
            part of Ethiopia and the Northern Frontier Province of Kenya. 
            

            Somali United Party: f. 1959; Formed by the People in areas 
            to extreme North-West and North-East of former British Somaliland. 
            

            Liberal Somali Youth Party (P.L.G.S.) (Partito Liberale dei Giovani 
            Somali): A small opposition Party 
            

            The Greater Somali League: Mogadishu; f. 1958; formed from 
            SYL dissidents; baycotted 1959 elections; stood for complete integration 
            of all Somali territories. 
            

            Other Parties: Union of the Youth of Benadir; The Somali Fichirin 
            Youth; Unione Musulmana; Unione Nazionale Somala; Unione Nazionalista 
            Africana; Somalia National Front; Unione Maniferro Nazionale; Somalia 
            Republican Party (P.R.S.); Somali African National Union (S.A.N.U.). 
            

Judicial System:

The Judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative powers. Laws and acts having the force of law must conform to provisions of the constitution and to the general principles of Islam.


            Supreme Court: Mogadishu; as the highest judicial organ, has 
            jurisdiction over the whole territory of the state in civil, penal, 
            administrative and financial matters. 
            

            Regional Judges and Court of Assixes: Six Regional Judges preside 
            over the Courts of Assizes. The Assize Courts hear all important Criminal 
            Cases. The Regional Judge also reviews the decisions of District Judges. 
            Regional judgments may be reviewed by an Appeal Court. 
            

            District Judges: All petty Criminal cases are heard by District 
            Judges or the District Commissioners. 
            

            Qadis: Civil matters such as marriage and divorce are handled 
            by District Qadis under thesharia (Islamic) law and other traditional 
            laws 
            

Press

Corriere della Somalia: Moadishu; daily; Arabic and Italian; Government Information Department.


            Bollettino Mensile della Camera di Commercio, Industria ed Agricultura 
            della Somalia: Mogadishu; f. 1944; Monthly; Italian; Published 
            by Chamber of Commerce of Somalia. 
            

            Il Faro: Mogadishu; Monthly; Italian; Catholic. 
            

            Al Liwa (The Flag): Hargeisa; Weekly; Published in Arabic by 
            private concern. 
            

            People's Union: Harheisa; Weekly, published in Arabic by private 
            concern; alligned to the Somali Democtratic Union. 
            

            Somali News: Mogadishu; Weekly; English; government owned. 
            

            La Tribuna: Mogadishu; Monthly; Italian. 
            

Radio

National Broadcasting Station: Radio Mogadishu, Voice of the Somali Republic, Mogadishu; main government service; broadcasts in Somali, English, Italian, Arabic, Swahili, Amharic and Qoti.


            Radio Somali: Hargeisa; Northern Region Government station; 
            broadcasts in Somali, and relays Somali and Amharic transmission from 
            Radio Mogadishu. 
            

Banking

Banca Nazionale Somala: Mogadishu; f. 1960; Central Bank and currency issuing authority; Branches in Baidoa, Belet Weyn, Berbera, Bosaso, Buroa, Galkayo, Gardo, Hargeisa and Kismayo.


            Credito Somalo (Somali Credit Bank): Mogadishu; f. 1954; chartered 
            public institution; foreign exchange and loans for commerce, industry, 
            agriculture and development. 
            

            Banco di Napoli: Naples (Italy);Mogadishu and agency in Kismayo 
            

            Banco di Roma: Roma (Italy); Mogadishu and agency in Merca 
            

            Banque de Port Said: Port Said;Mogadishu. 
            

            National and Grindlays Bank Ltd.: London (UK); Hargeisa and 
            Berbera. 
            

Insurance

Cassa per le Assicurazioni Sociali della Somalia: Mogadishu, f. 1950; workmen's compensation.

Source: The Somali News (The Government Weekly News Paper)
 
 



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